Archive for December, 2010

AUTHOR:

Tom Ritchey
Department for Technology Foresight and Assessment
Swedish Defence Research Agency,
SE-172 90 Stockholm,Sweden.
E-mail: ritchey@swemorph.com

ABSTRACT

General morphological analysis (GMA) is a method for structuring and investigating the total set of relationships contained in multi-dimensional, usually non-quantifiable, problem complexes. Pioneered by Fritz Zwicky at the California Institute of Technology in the 1930s and 40s, it relies on a constructed parameter space, linked by way of logical relationships, rather than on causal relationships and a hierarchal structure. During the past 10 years, GMA has been computerized and extended for structuring and analyzing complex policy spaces, developing futures scenarios and modelling strategy alternatives. This article gives a historical and theoretical background to GMA as a problem structuring method, compares it with a number of other “soft-OR” methods, and presents a recent application in structuring a complex policy issue. The issue involves the development of an Extended Producer
Responsibility (EPR) system in Sweden.

Keywords:

morphological analysis, general morphology, problem structuring methods, typology analysis, OR-methods.

To view the full article, click this link:

http://www.swemorph.com/pdf/psm-gma.pdf

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AUTHOR:

Farzad Ehsani
Sehda, Inc.
Eva Knodt
Sehda, Inc.

ABSTRACT

We investigate the suitability of deploying speech technology in computer-based systems that can be used to teach foreign language skills. In reviewing the current state of speech recognition and speech processing technology and by examining a number of voice-interactive CALL applications, we suggest how to create robust interactive learning environments that exploit the strengths of speech technology while working around its limitations. In the conclusion, we draw on our review of these applications to identify directions of future research that might improve both the design and the overall performance of voice-interactive CALL systems.

To view the full article, click this link:

http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num1/pdf/article3.pdf

AUTHOR:

Claire Kramsch
University of California, Berkeley
Roger W. Andersen
University of California, Los Angeles

ABSTRACT:

The use of multimedia technology to teach language in its authentic cultural context represents a double challenge for language learners and teachers. On the one hand, the computer gives learners access to authentic video footage and other cultural materials that can help them get a sense of the sociocultural context in which the language is used. On the other hand, CD-ROM multimedia textualizes this context in ways that need to be “read” and interpreted. Learners are thus faced with the double task of (a) observing and choosing culturally relevant features of the context and (b) putting linguistic features in relation to other features to arrive at some understanding of language in use. This paper analyzes the interaction of text and context in a multimedia Quechua language program, and makes suggestions for teaching foreign languages through multimedia technology.

To view this article more, click this link

http://llt.msu.edu/vol2num2/pdf/article1.pdf

Journal of Computing in Higher Education Spring 2003, Vol. 14(2), 3-20.

AUTHOR
John D. Battenburg
English Department
California Polytechnic State University

Kathleen Margaret Lant
English Department
California State Hayward

ABSTRACT
While advances in instructional technology offer new ways to think about and teach in the humanities and the social sciences, inadequate attention has been paid to the teaching of linguistics and the employing of various pedagogical models within the classroom. By contributing entries to the California Central Coast Online Dictionary (CCCOD), a data base supported Web site, university students learn a great deal about linguistics and lexicography. Such a project allows for consideration of several models for teaching in the information age: teaching as modeling, teaching as negotiation, and teaching as defamiliarization or disequilibrium. Using instructional technological tools such as the CCCOD provides opportunities for students to consider real-world language challenges. By describing speech communities through the creation of an online dictionary, faculty and students share in multifaceted interactivity and collaborative learning. (Keywords: linguistics, lexicography, language, on-line dictionary, teaching)

Click this link to view the full article:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/q4w7872523u5r112/fulltext.pdf

AUTHOR:

Joseph Collentine
Northern Arizona University

LINK:

https://calico.org/html/article_439.pdf

Abstract:
Cognitive learning theories increasingly inform the creation and design of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) materials. Recent discussions have explored the potential benefits of underscoring CALL materials with socio-cognitive learning theories such as situated cognition (Salaberry 1996; Reni & Chanier, 1995). However, Reynolds, Sinatra, and Jetton (1996) remind educators that there are principally two types of learning theories, both of which enjoy empirical verification: experience-centered theories, like situated cognition, and mind-centered ones, such as those theories that recognize the importance of providing learners with comprehensible input (e.g., Krashen, 1982). Even if Krashen’s theory of comprehensible input is empirically untenable, it is important to keep in mind that no documented cases of successful foreign language acquisition exist without exposure to some sort of comprehensible input (Long, 1990). Thus, CALL materials designers and educators should continue to explore mind-centered theories. Drawing on the latest advances in our understanding of the interaction between internal cognitive processes and foreign language learning specifically, VanPatten’s (1993) Processing Instruction framework this author outlines principles with which CALL educators can design effective input-oriented tasks targeting grammar instruction. The article concludes with the presentation of a prototype CALL application implementing these principles.

KEYWORDS

Cognitive Science, Computer Assisted Language Learning, Foreign Language Acquisition, Grammar, Input, Intake, Learning Theory, Situated Cognition.


AUTHOR:

Caroline Grace
Purdue University

LINK:

https://calico.org/html/article_440.pdf

Abstract:
Several studies have shown a correlation between learning strategies and personality and that certain personality types have varying degrees of tolerance of ambiguity. The goal of this study is to examine the effects of lexical ambiguity in CALL (operationally defined as whether or not the CALL context provides first-language sentence-level translations as a means for verifying meaning) on beginning second language learners. Specifically, it attempts to determine whether learners personality type as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator have an effect on the retention of second language vocabulary independently of the translation issue and in an ambiguous CALL context. Analyses of vocabulary retention tests show that students of all personality types learned and retained a significant amount of vocabulary when verification of meaning was provided through the first language regardless of their tolerance for ambiguity. This case did not obtain for all types in a more ambiguous context. Findings support the need for beginning vocabulary learning software which renders meaning clearly while promoting deep processing.

Keywords

Personality, Vocabulary Retention, Lexical Ambiguity, Translation, Software

 

AUTHOR:

Richard Barrutia

LINK:

https://calico.org/html/article_264.pdf

Abstract:
The ideal CALL courseware development procedure will take advantage of many or all of the latest hardware, pedagogical, and theoretical advances in the language teaching field. These advances are presented in this paper both as a description o the ideal CALL courseware and, where applicable, as actual design implementations in a Spanish course being developed by the author.

KEYWORDS: artificial intelligence, branch programming, Spanish, hardware, design, development, courseware, software, desiderata, expert system, language acquisition, communicative drill.